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David (/ˈdeɪvɪd/; Hebrew: דָּוִד, Modern David, Tiberian About this sound Dāwîḏ (help·info); ISO 259-3 Dawid; Ancient Greek: Δαυίδ Davíd; Latin: Davidus, David; Gəˁəz: Dawit) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah David melech yisrael karaoke instrumental
Depicted as a valorous warrior of great renown, a poet, and musician credited for composing many of the psalms contained in the Book of Psalms, King David is viewed in biblical sources as a righteous and effective king both in battle and in providing civil and criminal justice. He is described as a man after God’s own heart in 1 Samuel
Samuel anoints David, Dura Europos, Syria, 3rd century CE
Study of King David, by Julia Margaret Cameron. Depicts Sir Henry Taylor, 1866
The first book of Samuel portrays David as the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse of Bethlehem. His mother is not named in any book of the Bible, but the Talmud identifies her as Nitzevet daughter of Adael. When the story was retold in 1 Chronicles (4th century BCE) he was made the youngest of seven sons and given two sisters, Zeruiah and Abigail. The Book of Ruth (possibly also 4th century BCE) traces his ancestry back to Ruth the Moabite.
David is described as cementing his relations with various political and national groups through marriage. He is described as having eight wives: Michal, the second daughter of King Saul; Ahinoam the Jezreelite; Abigail the Carmelite, previously wife of Nabal; Maachah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur; Haggith; Abital; Eglah; and Bathsheba. David melech yisrael karaoke instrumental
The Book of Chronicles lists his sons with his various wives and concubines. In Hebron, David had six sons: Amnon, by Ahinoam; Daniel, by Abigail; Absalom, by Maachah; Adonijah, by Haggith; Shephatiah, by Abital; and Ithream, by Eglah. By Bathsheba, his sons were Shammua, Shobab, Nathan and Solomon. David’s sons born in Jerusalem of his other wives included Ibhar, Elishua, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama and Eliada. Jerimoth, who is not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his sons in 2 Chronicles 11:18. His daughter Tamar, by Maachah, is a key character in the incident of her rape by one of her half-brothers.
God is angered when Saul, Israel’s king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice and later disobeys a divine instruction to not only kill all of the Amalekites, but to destroy also their confiscated property. Consequently, he sends the prophet Samuel to anoint David, the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem, to be king instead.
God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul. Saul’s courtiers recommend that he send for David, a man skillful on the lyre, wise in speech, and brave in battle. So David enters Saul’s service as one of the royal armour-bearers, and plays the lyre to soothe the king, who from time to time is troubled by an evil spirit.
War comes between Israel and the Philistines, and the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat.David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul’s army, declares that he can defeat Goliath. Refusing the king’s offer of the royal armour, he kills Goliath with his sling. Saul inquires the name of the young hero’s father.David melech yisrael karaoke instrumental
Saul sets David over his army. All Israel loves David, but his popularity causes Saul to fear him (“What else can he wish but the kingdom?”). Saul plots his death, but Saul’s son Jonathan, one of those who loves David, warns him of his father’s schemes and David flees. He goes first to Nob, where he is fed by the priest Ahimelech and given Goliath’s sword, and then to Gath, the Philistine city of Goliath, intending to seek refuge with King Achish there. Achish’s servants or officials question his loyalty, and David sees that he is in danger there. He goes next to the cave of Adullam, where his family join him. From there he goes to seek refuge with the king of Moab, but the prophet Gad advises him to leave and he goes to the Forest of Hereth, and then to Keilah, where is involved in a further battle with the Philistines. Saul plans to besiege Keilah so that he can capture David, so David leaves the city in order to protect its inhabitants.From there he takes refuge in the mountains in the Wilderness of Ziph.
Jonathan meets with David again and confirms his loyalty to David as the future king. The people of Ziph notify Saul that David is taking refuge in their territory, Saul seeks confirmation and plans to capture David in the Wilderness of Maon, but his attention is diverted by a renewed Philistine invasion and David is able to secure some respite at Ein Gedi. Returning from battle with the Philistines, Saul heads to Ein Gedi in pursuit of David and enters the cave where, as it happens, David and his supporters are hiding, “to attend to his needs”. David realises he has an opportunity to kill Saul, but this is not his intention: he secretly cuts off a corner of Saul’s robe and when Saul has left the cave he comes out to pay homage to Saul as the king and to demonstrate, using the piece of robe, that he holds no malice towards Saul. The two are thus reconciled and Saul recognises David as his successor. Anglican theologian Donald Spence Jones holds that, “one of the most beautiful characteristics of David’s many-sided nature was this enduring loyalty to Saul and to Saul’s house”. David melech yisrael karaoke instrumental
Alternatively, or (in the opinion of some commentators) subsequently, Saul and David were reconciled following a similar occurrence when David was able to infiltrate Saul’s camp on the hill of Hachilah and remove his spear and a jug of water from his side while he and his guards lay asleep. In this account (1 Samuel 26), David is advised by Abishai that this is his opportunity to kill Saul, but David declines, saying he will not “stretch out [his] hand against the Lord’s anointed”. David shows, by removing Saul’s spear, that he had chance to take Saul’s life but did not do so. Saul confesses that he has been wrong to pursue David, blesses him and promises that he “will do great things and surely triumph”. David prays that his own protection will be like his protection of Saul. The New King James Version and the New International Version both identify this episode as a second reconciliation between Saul and David (with no account of any intervening dispute) but theologian Albert Barnes says the incident “is of a nature unlikely to have occurred more than once”. David melech yisrael karaoke instrumental
This, it seems, was their last interview: after this they saw each other no more. A different tradition is recalled in 1 Samuel 27:1-4, namely that Saul ceased to pursue David because David took refuge a second time with Achish, the Philistine king of Gath. David is left behind to guard the camp when the Philistines march against Saul. Jonathan and Saul are killed, and David is anointed king over Judah.In the north, Saul’s son Ish-Bosheth is anointed king of Israel, and war ensues until Ish-Bosheth is murdered.
With the death of Saul’s son, the elders of Israel come to Hebron and David is anointed king over all of Israel.He conquers Jerusalem, previously a Jebusite stronghold, and makes it his capital. He brings the Ark of the Covenant to the city, intending to build a temple for God, but the prophet Nathan forbids it, prophesying that the temple would be built by one of his sons. Nathan also prophesies that God has made a covenant with the house of David stating, “your throne shall be established forever.” David wins more victories over the Philistines, while the Moabites, Edomites, Amalekites, Ammonites and king Hadadezer of Aram-Zobah pay tribute after being defeated.
During a battle to conquer the Ammonite capital of Rabbah, David seduces Bathsheba and causes the death of her husband Uriah the Hittite. In response, Nathan prophesies the punishment that shall fall upon him stating, “the sword shall never depart from your house.” In fulfillment of these words, David’s son Absalom rebels. The rebellion ends at the battle of the Wood of Ephraim. Absalom’s forces are routed, and Absalom is caught by his long hair in the branches of a tree, and killed by Joab, contrary to David’s order. Joab was the commander of David’s army. David laments the death of his favourite son: “O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!” When David is old and bedridden, Adonijah, his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declares himself king. Bathsheba and Nathan go to David and obtain his agreement to crown Bathsheba’s son Solomon as king, according to David’s earlier promise, and the revolt of Adonijah is put down. David dies at the age of 70 after reigning for 40 years, and on his deathbed counsels Solomon to walk in the ways of God and to take revenge on his enemies. David melech yisrael karaoke instrumental
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the Western world during the 1950s and 1960s, deriving from rock and roll. The terms “popular music” and “pop music” are often used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular (and can include any style).
Pop music is eclectic, and often borrows elements from other styles such as urban, dance, rock, Latin, and country; nonetheless, there are core elements that define pop music. Identifying factors include generally short to medium-length songs written in a basic format (often the verse-chorus structure) as well as the common employment of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, and hooks.
David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as “a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, jazz, and folk musics”. According to Pete Seeger, pop music is “professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music”.Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music. The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz, rock, and novelty songs. Pop music, as a genre, is seen as existing and developing separately.Thus “pop music” may be used to describe a distinct genre, aimed at a youth market, often characterized as a softer alternative to rock and roll.
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that the term “pop” refers to music performed by such artists as the Rolling Stones (pictured here in a 2006 performance) David melech yisrael karaoke instrumental
The term “pop song” was first recorded as being used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music “having popular appeal”.However, the term was in mainstream use at least ten years earlier. Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country, blues and hillbilly music.
According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, called Grove Music Online, the term “pop music” “originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop’s “earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience … since the late 1950s, however, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus[ic], usually in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc”. Grove Music Online also states that “… in the early 1960s [the term] ‘pop music’ competed terminologically with Beat music [in England], while in the USA its coverage overlapped (as it still does) with that of ‘rock and roll'”.
Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from most other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz, country, and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, and has recently appropriated spoken passages from rap. David melech yisrael karaoke instrumental
It has also made use of technological innovation. In the 1940s improved microphone design allowed a more intimate singing style and ten or twenty years later inexpensive and more durable 45 r.p.m. records for singles “revolutionized the manner in which pop has been disseminated” and helped to move pop music to ‘a record/radio/film star system’. Another technological change was the widespread availability of television in the 1950s; with televised performances, “pop stars had to have a visual presence”. In the 1960s, the introduction of inexpensive, portable transistor radios meant that teenagers could listen to music outside of the home. Multi-track recording (from the 1960s); and digital sampling (from the 1980s) have also been utilized as methods for the creation and elaboration of pop music. By the early 1980s, the promotion of pop music had been greatly affected by the rise of music television channels like MTV, which “favoured those artists such as Michael Jackson and Madonna who had a strong visual appeal”. David melech yisrael karaoke instrumental
According to several sources, MTV helped give rise to pop stars such as Michael Jackson and Madonna; and Jackson and Madonna
Pop music has been dominated by the American and (from the mid-1960s) British music industries, whose influence has made pop music something of an international monoculture, but most regions and countries have their own form of pop music, sometimes producing local versions of wider trends, and lending them local characteristics. Some of these trends (for example Europop) have had a significant impact of the development of the genre.
According to Grove Music Online, “Western-derived pop styles, whether coexisting with or marginalizing distinctively local genres, have spread throughout the world and have come to constitute stylistic common denominators in global commercial music cultures”.Some non-Western countries, such as Japan, have developed a thriving pop music industry, most of which is devoted to Western-style pop, has for several years produced a greater quantity of music of everywhere except the USA. The spread of Western-style pop music has been interpreted variously as representing processes of Americanization, homogenization, modernization, creative appropriation, cultural imperialism, and/or a more general process of globalization. Select subgeneres of pop such as the guitar-driven “Jank” subgenre have consciously reversed the trend toward homogenization by combining elements from world and classical music into more traditional pop structures.
According to British musicologist Simon Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, and an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal “artistic” qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it typically has an emphasis on recording, production, and technology, rather than live performance; a tendency to reflect existing trends rather than progressive developments; and aims to encourage dancing or uses dance-oriented rhythms.
The main medium of pop music is the song, often between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length, generally marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, and a chorus that contrasts melodically, rhythmically and harmonically with the verse. The beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment.The lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes – often love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are often “that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded.” and then to the tonic) and blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. David melech yisrael karaoke instrumental
A study in 2012 that examined over 464,000 recordings of popular music recorded since 1955 found “three important trends in the evolution of musical discourse: the restriction of pitch sequences (with metrics showing less variety in pitch progressions), the homogenization of the timbral palette [tone colour] (with frequent timbres becoming more frequent), and growing average loudness levels (threatening a dynamic richness [changes in volume] that has been conserved until today).” It was reported that the study “seems to support the popular anecdotal observation that pop music of yore was better, or at least more varied, than today’s top-40 stuff.